As a translator/editor - working mainly for the International
Labour Office (ILO), Geneva, Switzerland - I am fascinated by
languages in general, so I wanted to know more about multilingualism
on the Web. I found I had some time to look into the subject and
I wrote this paper about the topics I was particularly interested
International Online Marketing to Increase Your Web Traffic -- and Sales -- from Abroad. As the world economy becomes globalized and technology changes the business infrastructure, companies must learn to market themselves in other languages. By 2002, analysts estimate that 66% of Internet use and 40% of e-commerce revenue will come from outside the U.S. (Source: IDC). Businesses that rely heavily on the Web can no longer ignore the fact that 46% of all Internet users come from non-English-speaking countries.
This document is an Internet-Draft.Internet-Drafts are working documents
of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF),its areas, and its working groups.
This document discusses the Internationalization & Multilinguism of the Web.
A Web capable of supporting different cultures, natural languages and Language
Engineering facilities such as Parallel Texts. Internationalization permeates
The Virtual Forum is the telematic version of the Barcelona 2004 Universal
Forum of Cultures, today on the Internet and in the year 2004 in a much
more powerful setting. As a matter of fact, virtual can be more real than
reality itself. The great attraction of this procedure is the possibility of
effectively changing the world, rethinking and transforming the interactions
of men between one another and between them and the planet.
This section provides a selection of documents and websites on action plans,
policies, strategies and other measures taken by each country and regional
organization in Europe concerning the development of the information society.
Europe and the global information society - Recommendations to the European Council
In its Brussels meeting of December 1993, the European Council requested that a report be prepared for its meeting on 24-25 June 1994 in Corfu by a group of prominent persons on the specific measures to be taken into consideration by the Community and the Members States for information infrastructures. On the basis of this report, a program identifying precise procedures for action and the necessary means will be defined.
Codes for the representation of names of languages
- ISO 639:1988
Two-letter primary codes are reserved for [ISO639] language abbreviations. Two-letter codes include: ay (Aymara), fr (French), de (German), it (Italian), nl (Dutch), el (Greek), es (Spanish), pt (Portuguese), ar (Arabic), he (Hebrew), ro (Romanian), ru (Russian), zh (Chinese), ja (Japanese), hi (Hindi), ur (Urdu), and sa (Sanskrit). Any two-letter subcode is understood to be a [ISO3166] country code. Out of more than 6100 languages in the world, only 131 are ISO-639 coded.
Loom is a research project in the Artificial Intelligence research group at the University of Southern California's Information Sciences Institute. The goal of the project is to develop and field advanced tools for knowledge representation and reasoning in Artificial Intelligence.
An Overview of OWL, A Language for Knowledge Representation -1977
Peter Szolovits, Lowell B. Hawkinson, William A. Martin
We describe the motivation and overall organization of the OWL language for knowledge representation. OWL consists of a memory of concepts in terms of which all English phrases and all knowledge of an application domain are represented, a theory of English grammar which tells how to map English phrases into concepts, a parser to perform that mapping for individual sentences, and an interpreter to carry out procedures which are written in the same representational formalism.
UNL stands for "Universal Networking Language", an electronic language that enables communication between different native languages. It is a system of "enconverter" and "deconverter" software that will reside on the Internet, and will be compatible with standard network servers.
Description of the first multilingual translator, presented at the MT Workshop held under the auspicies of the General Secretariat of the Organization of American States, in Washington, D.C., March, 1985.
Survey of Machine Translation products and services - September 1996
Equipe Consortium Limited on behalf of the European Council
The Survey contains a selected list with data of 25 machine translation software developers: 5 from the USA, 3 from Canada and Germany, 2 from Denmark, Finland, Russia, and Japan, and one from France, Belgium, Greece, Spain, Ukraine and Bolivia. The Survey, among other aspects, concludes that some of the best technologies may not be in commercially available products; only a few products are plausible for handling EC translation loads; the most established translation services are currently provided by product vendors, but these are rudimentary.